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Theory of Change

  1. Introduction

    The Resilience Thematic Group’s Theory of Change outlines the strategies, outputs, outcomes and targeted impact of the project. This is elaborated in visual format followed by a detailed narrative which explains the inter-relations between the visually presented strategies, outputs, outcomes and impact.

a. Causal linkages

Our program seeks to positively influence development, revision, adoption and implementation of policy and regulations addressing climate change with specific interest in improving resilience of pastoralist communities.

The policy frameworks we will target include: the National Climate Change Response Strategy, National Climate Change Action Plan, National Environmental Policy, Climate Change Act, National Livestock Policy, National Budget Policy Statements, National Policy for Disaster Management and National Policy for the Sustainable Development of the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands of Kenya at the national level. At the County levels, policies of interest will include County Integrated Development Plans, County Climate Change Fund Bills, County Emergency Funds Bills, County Customary Bills, Livestock Sales Yard Bills, County Government Finance Bills and County Climate Change Policies.

Enactment and implementation of policies and inclusive legal frameworks should lead to the integration of pastoralists’ representatives in climate change decision-making structures and processes. The targeted processes for pastoralists’ participation and engagement under the project include: the County Climate Planning Committees, County Steering Groups; the National Climate Change Council as stipulated in the Climate Change Act 2016; the National Drought Management Authority Drought Contingency Fund; as well as the Kenya Climate Change Working Group represented by state and non-state actors.

The project goal is to increase pastoralist resilience to climate change by enhancing their voice in climate change policy formulation and implementation in Kenya. The initiative is premised on three key strategies:

  1. Institutional Capacity Building
  2. Evidence Generation and Dissemination
  3. Strategic Advocacy Initiatives

 

  1. Capacity development

SNV will work with partner CSOs under the resilience thematic group to build their capacities in leadership, advocacy, utilisation of data and evidence, knowledge in climate change resilience and business development in the sector. With capacities strengthened, CSOs will be more knowledgeable on the sector, able to accurately articulate climate change issues and engage more widely in the sector (D), and develop strategic collaborations (F) as a result of improved business development With increased collaborations and alliances with sector players, CSOs influence on climate change issues will increase (E) drawing government attention and political will (H) to engage constructively in addressing climate change policy.Structured collaboration with government will enhance accountability (G) and enhance political will (H) to develop and adopt inclusive policies (K) – pastoralists (elders and women) and private sector views incorporated. This will promote appropriate budget allocation to climate change resilience programs (J) for pastoralists and encourage business investment (I) resulting in improved services for pastoralist communities (L) – improved operation of livestock markets and resource (water and pasture) management.

  1. Evidence generation

Under the Evidence Generation Strategy, the project, aside from providing evidence on available legal frameworks to engage on climate change, will address gaps identified in the context analysis. Separate research will be conducted to understand the role and significance of traditional/customary institutions and effectiveness of models such as co-management of livestock markets in addressing climate change resilience for pastoralists in Kenya. Research will also cover the other knowledge gaps highlighted in the context analysis including climate change and gender with specific focus on pastoralist in Kenya. Specifically the research target will focus on how gender and intergenerational aspects can be mainstreamed in climate change resilience in pastoral communities Further, budgetary allocation in Livestock sector in ASAL Counties; gaps in the legal frameworks for promotion of pastoralists voice in climate change dialogues;  related to this project will be analysed.

Information generated from the research will be packaged for CSOs, Government Agencies, International Organisations, Private Sector, Media, Community Based Organisations, Research Institutions and policymakers at County and National levels. Information shared will increase awareness and knowledge on pastoralist issues regarding climate change allowing them to collaborate and participate articulately in meetings, multi-stakeholder platforms and alliances with governments and the private sector, increasing political goodwill eventually leading to enactment and implementation of policies.

  1. Strategic policy advocacy initiatives

The researches undertaken will generate evidence that will inform our advocacy strategies (lobbying, media campaigns) and at the same time make available material that will be used in the advocacy processes including:

  • Policy briefs
  • Budget analysis reports
  • Scoping/Market survey reports
  • Lobby briefs

Effective use of the evidence material for target groups (policy makers, bureaucrats, private sector, pastoralists and pastoral leaders) will contribute to increased participation (D) and influence (E) of CSOs in improving pastoralists’ voice in climate change policy processes. Structured collaborations between CSOs, Government and Private sector (F) using provisions for inclusion will enhance accountability (G) and increase political will (H) to engage pastoralists in development, adoption and implementation of inclusive policies, regulations and frameworks (K). Appropriate budget allocations at national and county level (J) and growth of businesses and private financial investment for pastoralists (I) resulting will lead to improved service delivery (L) to pastoralists and enhance their resilience to climate shocks.

Many county policies are due for review like the County Integrated Development Plan (CIDP) and many sector strategic plans like the one for water, environment and natural resources, and participation of pastoralists in these initiatives will be the major activities the resilience team will seek to lobby. Additionally, the climate change fund legislation and the customary natural resource management legislation require inputs from the lowest level when formulating, lobbying by CSOs for community inclusion in the process will ensure that policy makers remain accountable.

 

b. Assumptions

The resilience thematic group considers the following assumptions in undertaking the voice for change partnership project:

  • That regular meetings with stakeholders will lead to collaborative policy advocacy initiatives
  • That policies enacted and /or reviewed will be implemented fully to promote pastoralist voice in climate change dialogue
  • That gender and intergenerational issues will be considered in pastoralists’ participation in climate change resilience initiatives.
  • Implementing partners will receive adequate support in a timely manner from SNV to implement planned activities
  • That policy makers and bureaucrats will be responsive to our policy campaigns of amplifying pastoralists voice

c. Risks

  • There is risk that the upcoming 2017 general election may record incidences of unrest, alter policy development focus and thereby affect implementation of some activities during the campaign and election period. As a mitigation strategy, project action plans will factor in the activities in the elections and campaign calendar to take advantage of complimentary events and minimise conflicts accordingly.
  • Powerful and influential actors from non-pastoralist communities may oppose or even fight initiatives to amplify pastoralists’ voice in climate change agenda. To mitigate this, the project partners will work with the pastoralist leaders’ forum (PLF) which provides a strong united front for advocacy of pastoralists’ issues. Also, we will advocate for policy that does not disenfranchise any community.
  • Newly elected and appointed leaders/civil servants following 2017 elections may discontinue collaborating with the program as a predecessor did. However, partners will work closely with senior officials at ministries as well, employed by public service board and not appointed by president to ensure continuity

 

Context analysis

1. Introduction

The Drylands of Kenya make up 84% of Kenya’s total land surface, support about 25% of the country’s population (about 10 million people), account for more than 80% of the country’s eco-tourism interests and possibly up to 60% of the country’s livestock[1].The contribution of the sector to Kenya’s economy is often given as 12% of the country’s GDP and 42% of agricultural GDP (SNV, 2008). Besides, it is a significant source of foreign exchange and has strong linkages with the other activities of the economy[2].Nationally, 11.4% of household consumption expenditure is spent on livestock-derived food items.  More than 80% of the beef consumed in Kenya is produced by pastoralists[3].

Pastoralism[4] is the livelihood and production system that has proved most adaptive to the extreme climatic uncertainty and marginal landscapes of the drylands, making the most sustainable economic and environmental use of these ecologically sensitive areas to support the lives and livelihoods of local populations (WISP, 2006). Pastoralists depend primarily on livestock and livestock products for food and income, grazing their animals on communallymanaged or open-access pastures, and using seasonal mobility as a means of managing access to water and pastures in the drylands. They manage their livestock, water, land and pasture using indigenous knowledge and mediated by traditional institutions that are also the custodians of their indigenous knowledge systems. Thus, pastoralism is a system with its norms and structures that enforce those norms. It is a traditional production system the sustainable operation of which long depended on traditional institutions of governance. The norms and their supportive institutional framework have evolved over time to become appropriate for the sustainable management of the drylands.

Indigenous knowledge plays a key role in the management of the rangelands resources including water and pasture, which are key reources for sustaining livestock based livelihoods. The custodians of such knowledge are indigenous institutions who mediate and enforce the norms rules and regulations tht govwern pastoral systems.

Pastoralism is directly dependent on a complex interplay between natural resources, vibrant management through proven localised institutions and livestock that have adapted itself to the enviroment. The three key pillars of pastoralism are natural resources, institutions and the herd which are all heavily impacted by seasonality pattern whose function is always thrown out of normal  pattern  by changing climate.

Pastoralist communities manage their rangeland by dividing the range into dry and wet grazing zones. They graze in dryer parts of the rangeland during rainy season and move to wet areas during the dry period, when they have exhausted the pasture and water resource. This nomadic movement has supported the pastoral survival for centuries but now their survival is at stake as climate change takes centre stage. Climate change in dryland areas manisfests itself in floodstorms and cyclic droughts which result in disruption of livelihoods through high livestock mortality which undermines the adaptive capacity and resilience of communities in the drylands of Kenya.

 

  1. Problem description

Appropriate policies are a key component of stabilising the livelihoods of pastoral systems especially those that are geared towards climate change mitigation. Policies that are well formulated and are adaptive to the needs of pastoral communities, incorporating indigenous knowledge and recognising the role of customary institutions will foster a robust business environment that supports businesses and investments in pastoral systems resulting in communities with enhanced ability to cope with climate change. The policy environment in Kenya is robust with Climate Change laws and institutional frameworks newly established to build economic, social and environmental resilience of communities and individuals to climate change shocks. The policy frameworks are however devoid of a strong pastoralist agenda which leaves pastoralists and their mainstay livestock economic system vulnerable resulting in ineffective solutions for pastoralists’ resilience.

Strong representation (supported by evidence) for pastoralists in climate strategies and finacing platforms at national and county levels is lacking or weak in the following specific areas:

  • The National Climate Change Response Strategy 2010. The strategy is a commitment to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), to which Kenya is a signatory. Its principal focus is ensuring adaptation and mitigation measures are integrated in all government planning, budgeting and development objectives. The pastoralists’ issues are not well captured in the document and there is need for participation in its review.
  • County Integrated Development Plans (CIDPs)
  • Draft Climate Smart Agricultural framework
  • The National Livestock Policy. The policy recognizes the potential of ASALs in livestock production, and proposes as one of its measures the promotion of sound range management practices and effective disease control
  • The County Climate Change legislations being developed (for example in Isiolo, Wajir and Makueni). This provides the communities with opportunities to put in customized plans for  improving their resilience
  • County livestock policies developed (as the case in Isiolo). This provides an opportunity to mainstream climate resilience issues in the policy formulation processes
  • County water policies and strategic plans

 

Civil society participation in the financial platforms and policy frameworks above from a position of knowledge and in a strategic manner will open legal avenues for economic, political, social and environmental issues affecting vulnerability of pastoralist communities to climate change to be addressed comprehensively.

 

 

3. Methodology

 

The main methods used to inform this context analysis include consultations with key actors in the climate change agenda- state and non-state actors at the County and National levels.Key collaborators were met both at county and national level (see annex 1). Additional sources of information were used including the internet resources[5] as well as reference to publications on co-management livestock market models and case studies by SNV. Government publications such as Policy and Legislative documents were also used, particularly those touching on Climate change such as the National Climate Change Response Strategy[6], The National Climate Change Action Plan[7], The Climate Change Act [8]and the Isiolo County Draft Disaster Risk Reduction Policy as well as the Isiolo County Livestock Sales Yard Draft Bill.

The Resilience Thematic Group Partners and SNV advisors also held consultative meetings to provide input to the Context Analysis.
[1]Davies J., 2007, Total Economic Valuation of Kenyan Pastoralism, IUCN, Nairobi – Available at http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/kenya_tev.pdf

[2]SNV (2008) Process Report on the National Conference on Public Private Partnership in the Development and Management of Livestock Marketing in the ASALs.

[3]IGAD Centre for Pastoral Areas & Livestock Development (ICPALD), 2013, Policy Brief No: ICPALD 4/CLE/8/2013, POLICY BRIEF SERIES The Contribution of Livestock to the Kenyan Economy, Nairobi, ICPALD – Available at http://igad.int/attachments/714_The%20Contribution%20of%20Livestock%20to%20the%20Kenyan%20Economy.pdf

[4] The term pastoralism refers to both an economic activity and a cultural identity, but the latter does not necessarily imply the former. As an economic activity, pastoralism is an animal production system which takes advantage of the characteristic instability of rangeland environments, where key resources such as nutrients and water for livestock become available in short-lived and largely unpredictable concentrations. Crucial aspects of pastoralist specialisation are: 1. The interaction of people, animals and the environment, particularly strategic mobility of livestock and selective feeding; and 2. The development of flexible resource management systems, particularly communal land management institutions and non-exclusive entitlements to water resources.’ (Rok (2012) National Policy for the Sustainable Development of Northern Kenya and other Arid Lands. Sessional Paper No. 8, Ministry of State for Development of Northern Kenya and Other Arid Lands, Office of the Prime tinister.)

 

[5]SNV www.snvworld.org and KLMC www.klmc.org websites

[6]http://cdkn.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/National-Climate-Change-Response-Strategy_April-2010.pdf

[7]http://cdkn.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Kenya-National-Climate-Change-Action-Plan.pdf

[8]http://kenyalaw.org/kl/fileadmin/pdfdownloads/Acts/ClimateChangeActNo11of2016.pdf

 

4. Analysis current situation

 

4.1 Factors that influence the issue, its causes and the desired changes

The team applied the PESTEL model to analyse the current situation of pastoral systems. The tool critically considers the political, Economic, Social Technological Environmental, and LEGAL factors that affect pastoralists resielience. Table 1 below details an analysis of various factors affecting pastoralist resilience and the nature of influence.

Factor Nature of influence
Political factors §  Lack of political goodwill with regard to pastoralists’ issues

§  Lack of adequate involvement of the Pastoral communities in the policy formulation process

Economic factors §  Inadequate market structures for livestock trade

§  Limited access to export market opportunities

§  Limited access to affordable credit facilities for livestock traders and producers

§  Inefficiency in the livestock marketing chain because of too many brokers and middlemen

Social factors §  Inter-community conflicts over limited resources (Pasture and Water)

§  Extra burden on women in caring for their families and small livestock in the face of limited water and pasture

Technological factors §  Lack of capacity to adopt new breeding technologies

§  Poor mobile network coverage in pastoral areas to support financial transactions

§  Poor livestock market prices as a result of the absence of a fully functional Livestock Market Information Management System

Environmental factors §  Floods increasing the spread of livestock diseases

§  Deforestation and degradation of land used by pastoralists

Legal factors ·         Conflicting legislations within the sector

 


Political factors

Historical policies such as the Sessional Paper No. 10 of 1965 [1]- African Socialism and its Application to Planning in Kenya identified pastoral areas as low potential and that government limited resources should be invested in high potential crop producing areas. This limited Government investment to pastoral regions affected development and their coping capacity to climate change.

In addition, due to the perception of uneconomical value of pastoralism, governments, investors and donors are sceptical about investing in Pastoralism. This has also led to coercion of pastoralists towards settlement in contrast to mobility. This is manifested, for instance, in increased investment in irrigation projects in and for pastoralist communities such as the Galana Kulalo Irrigation Scheme [2]in the predominantly pastoralist Tana River County. The loss of rangeland to irrigation schemes have reduced the pastoral grazing lands leading to conflict between the crop farmers and pastoralist.

Over the years government policies in relation to ASAL has improved  also, the new constitution of Kenya adopted in 2010 has provided opportunities for devolution.  There is visible increased representation of pastoralists in key political and public sectors and their voice in policy making processes is growing.
Economic factors

Due to the mobile nature of pastoralists and history of marginalisation and exclusion, there are inadequate market structures for livestock trade. It is just until recently that co-managed livestock markets have been set up in number of pastoralist counties with the support of civil society organisations and foreign missions. The model provides a management system which empowers communities to take part in the management of livestock markets in the county by working in partnership with local government. In counties where the model has been adopted (Marsabit and Isiolo), there has been improved market management which has attracted higher number of traders, increased market volume and revenue accrued from livestock trade.

Despite concerted efforts to promote livestock trade and markets, the livestock producers and traders face limitations in accessing some regional and international markets and particularly in Europe due to low standard products – on the basis of these markets. There is therefore need to put in place legal frameworks, institutions, programmes to enhance quality and value addition to livestock products.

There is also inadequate investment by both the public and the private sectors in the livestock sector, mostly as a result of the misconception that pastoral farming is not economically viable and the lack of adequate information (reliable data on volume of livestock trade and consumption level per capita) on the economic value of livestock farming. Compared to cash crops such as coffee, horticulture, tea and more recently even khat, the livestock sector receives minimal financial support from both the government and private sector in terms of credit facilities offered.
Social factors

Incessant conflicts between pastoralists themselves, with neighbouring and with communities across the country borders (Somalia, South Sudan and Uganda) affects livestock trade and marketing. Insecurity as a result of these conflicts deters private sector investment in pastoralism.

It is unarguable that pastoralist women suffer disproportionately to the men as a result of climate change shocks. This is mainly due to their limited and sometimes lack of decision making authority and adequate resource to cushion them against these effects. The women role of household chores [3]are greatly affected by climate change for example water access, taking care of calves, kids and lambs. They have to find feed for young ones and are forced to travel long distance to harvest enough.
 

 

Technological factors

Despite the increased penetration as well as rising usage of technology and particularly smart phones in the Drylands of Kenya, there is still low uptake of appropriate technologies or innovations such as artificial insemination and innovative use of mobile information technologies that can increase productivity, improve income level and therefore enhance resilience. There are opportunities for the pastoralist to provide M-Pesa service especially in livestock markets. Livestock traders handle cash in an area which is not very secure. The provision of financial services will attract more buyers from secondary and terminal markets. There is opportunity to use mobile apps to develop livestock market information which will promote livestock sales by providing livestock prices and other product prices thereby attracting traders and producers. The information on livestock prices can be an incentive for the pastoralist to sell livestock therefore reducing non-productive animals from their herds. Spatial mapping apps and early warning system could be integrated in support of traditional resource management system to enhance pastoralist resilience.
Environmental factors

Pastoralism leads to 14.5% 0f human-induced GHG emissions according to a FAO 2013 report [4] however a subsequent FAO 2015 report[5] with Scientists from Mazingira centre have found out that Tier 1 emission factors established by the intergovernmental panel on climate change ( IPCC) overestimate both methane and nitrous oxide emissions from cattle excreta, given typical smallholder practices in east Africa.  While the pastoralists don’t contribute much to climate change they suffer from the effect of climate changes severely.

High degree of human interference in the ecosystem has increased the environmental change. Demand for energy is one of the main drivers of deforestation and land degradation in Kenya.  Charcoal burning especially in urban centres has reduced the acacia trees which provide nutritious pads during the dry period in pastoral Counties. The ministry of energy report indicated that the final delivered biomass energy accounts for 78% [6]of all energy consumed in Kenya.  (MOE, 2002)

According to draft veterinary policy (GOK 2015), disasters like drought and massive flooding displaces communities and contributes to the spread of vector-borne, contagious and infectious diseases like Foot and Mouth Disease, Rift Valley Fever, Nairobi Sheep Disease, Bluetongue and Lumpy Skin Disease. Drought and floods also lead to wind or water erosion of top soils and destabilize the range environment.
Legal factors

Conflicting legislations on livestock movement within and across counties hampers livestock trade, for instance the Finance Bills of Isiolo and its neighbouring counties charge different cess fees for livestock crossing their borders instead of a uniform fee, yet pastoralists from all these counties travel across their neighbouring counties regularly and equally. The sale yard bill under discussion at the moment will help to harmonize livestock trade in and across counties.
Gender

The Voice for change project will pay special attention to gender issues affecting pastoralist women in light of climate because of their vulnerability. Gender-poverty links show that 70 percent of the poor in the world are women. The dry and pastoral lands occupy more than 80 per cent of Kenya. The increased frequency of droughts witnessed in recent years has come with harmful consequences on pastoralists’ livestock and other assets. Furthermore, Women’s Environment and Development Organisation, WEDO (2007 cited in Dankelman et al., 2008:10) state that women, as the majority of the world’s poor, are the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Thus, during natural disasters, often more women die than men because they are not warned, cannot swim or cannot leave the house alone (Dankelman et al., 2008:10)[7]. When poor women lose their livelihoods, they slip deeper into poverty due to the increase in inequality and marginalisation they suffer from because of their gender. As a result, climate change presents a very specific threat to women’s security (Dankelman et al., 2008:10)[8].

[1]http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTAFRICA/Resources/257994-1335471959878/Sessional-Paper-No-10-(1965).pdf

[2]http://www.nation.co.ke/business/Kenya-secures-Sh7bn-deal-to-fund-Galana-irrigation-project/996-3097422-33xup4z/index.html

[3]https://womennewsnetwork.net/2013/03/16/climate-change-kenya-womens-lives/

[4]See http://www.fao.org/3/i3437e.pdf

[5] http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4646e.pdf

[6]See: http://www.bioenergylists.org/stovesdoc/Kenya/Biomass_use_Kenya.ppt

 

[7] Omolo ACCFP, (2010); Gender, pastoralism and climate change: vulnerability and adaptation in Northern Kenya

 

[8] Women’s Environment and Development Organisation, WEDO (2007): Changing the climate: Why women’s perspectives matter. www.undp.org.cu/crmi/docs/wedoccwomen-in-2007-en.pdf (Accessed 24 May, 2010 )

 

Actor Roles How we will engage
Local NGOs and CBOs1
Merti Integrated Development Programme(MID-P) Community empowerment and civic education on many issues ·         Work with them in enhancing awareness within the community

 

·         Collaborate in lobbying for inclusion in policy making process

 

·         Increasing community participation in Resource management and allocations

Ward Adaptation Planning Committee(WAPC) Consulting and aggregating community climate adaptation plans and share with actors
Water Resource Users Association (WRUA) Undertake local management of water resources
Dedha (14) Mandated customarily with management of natural resources
Rangeland Users Association(RUA) Management of strategic boreholes in Merti sub county
Waso Trust land Advocacy for land issues
Local NGOs and CBOs2
Water management committees Manage domestic rural water ·         Work with them in enhancing awareness within the community

·         Work with them in maistreaming women issues in policies.

·         Generating evidence on role of women in climate change resilience

Pastoral women for Health and Education Championing for the rights of women in pastoral areas
Government agencies (National and County)1
National Drought Management Authority (NDMA) Disaster management, ending drought emergencies (EDE) lead agency Collaborate with them in collecting evidence for comprehensive policy development

 

Ministry of water, energy environment and natural resources Mandated with handling water, environment and natural resource issues in the county
Ministry of livestock and Agriculture Mandated in the County with improving livestock production, veterinary and marketing and Agriculture
Government agencies (National and County)2
National Environment Management Authority        ( NEMA) Environmental management ·         Work with them to ensure enforcement of policies that  are environment sensitive

·         Work with them evidence generation and dissemination

·         Share early warning systems to improve resilience

Kenya Metereological Services (KMS) Conducting weekly and seasonal forecasts, climate information services
Development Agencies1
European Union (EU), United State Agency for International Development (USAID) and Embassy of the kingdom of The Netherlands (EKN) Providing financial support and establish programs and projects that builds communities’ resilience ·         Work with them to provide joint initiatives and programmes to address livestock marketing and climate change in pastoralist counties

·         Work with them in evidence generation and dissemination through their websites

·          Establish platforms to jointly push for the enactment of national policy

Adaptation  Consortium Community resilience building at local levels through mainstreaming local plans to formal planning systems.
International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) Climate Change Adaptation and Community resilience building
Care international Poverty eradication and Community resilience building
United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Helping in poverty reduction, reduction of inequalities and exclusion. Community resilience building
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) Livestock and climate change research
Oxfam Supporting CSO involved in development of pastoral communities
SNV Working with CSOs in institutional capacity development, Evidence generation and policy advocacy
IFPRI
United Nation Environmental Program (UNEP) Protect the environment and developing international policies and regulation
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Developing food security agenda for the world and community resilience
CordAid Supporting CSO involved in DMP and Livelohood
Politicians1
Pastoralist Leadership Forum Undertake lobbying for positive policies and provide political cover for the pastoralists Work with them to jointly push for the enactment of climate change policies and startegies
Politicians2
Kenya Women Parliamentarians (KEWOPA) Championing for the rights of women in Kenya Work with them in maistreaming women issues in policies in Kenya.

 

Private Sector1
Kenya Commercil Bank  Group Financial services holding company based in Nairobi but working all over East Africa ·         Work with them in providing pastoralists and county government with credit facilities to cushion against effects of Climate change
Private Sector2
Livestock traders associations Investments in livestock trade ·         Work with them in enhancing awareness within the livestock traders

·         Work with them in joint initiatives to address livestock marketing and climate change in pastoralist counties

 

County Livestock Marketing Council Promote, organize and lobby for enabling environment for livestock sector
Research and academic institutions
The University of Nairobi Develop curriculum addressing climate change, build human resource capital and research for evidence generation to policy development process ·         Work with them in generation and dissemination of well packaged and easily accessible evidence and information on climate change

·         Work with them in bridging the knowledge gaps identified in the policies related to climate change

Kenya Institute of public policy Research Analysis(KIPPRA) Involved in policy research and analysis, evidence generation and dissemination
Kenya National Bereau of Statistics (KNBS) Provide national data demography and livelihood
Media
Media Platforms Broadcast  information and knowledge to the public Dissemination of information and sharing successes on Climate issues related to Pastoralists
Religious Institutions
Mosques, Churches and traditional religions Mobilization of the public  on social and cultural issues Dissemination of information on Climate issues related to Pastoralists
Non-pastoral communities
Agricultural and fishing communities Involvement in advocating for improvement of their livelihoods Work with them to improve their understanding on pastoralists issues

 

 

5. Knowledge gaps

 

The following areas are relevant inputs to climate change and pastoralist resilience discourse but need further research:

  1. Climate change and Gender with specific focus on pastoralist in Kenya. How gender and intergenerational aspects can be mainstreamed in climate change resilience in pastoral communities.
  2. Evidence based research on the importance of pastoralists’ traditional/cultural institutions in climate change resilience and how co-management is improving the resilience and sustainability of markets
  3. Pastoralist contribution to Kenyan economy – developing system of data collection in collaboration with the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) to show economic contribution livestock
  4. Budget allocation in Livestock sector in ASAL Counties
  5. Gaps in the legal frameworks for promotion of pastoralists voice in climate change dialogues
  6. Ongoing dialogues, their agenda and objectives at the regional and international platforms which impact on Kenya’s national policies and are related to this project.

This project will focus on creating a stronger voice to push for improvement in pastoralists’ resilience to climate shocks by lobbying and collaborating within the existing legal frameworks backed with researched evidence.

 

 

 

Annex. List of organisations & meeting summaries

 

Organisation Meeting summary
NEMA Key role for SNV in delivering climate change finance

Interested to know of how we undertake climate change adaptation

Interested to understand how we can get more private sector engagement in delivering climate change adaptation.

Interested to meet more regularly with us

Interested in less work on their side – staff already overstretched

Interested in having ideas on adaptation

Warned against chasing climate change finance without government support.

 

Climate Change Finance Focal Point  – Adaptation Fund, based at NEMA Wants further engagement and support from SNV

 

Climate Change Finance Focal Point  – Green Climate Fund Very keen to work with SNV

Further meetings to occur in 2016

National Drought Management Authority Staff

 

The adaptation programme ADA is key for them in terms of resilience.

Strong institutional capacity

Some staff have worked with SNV before

Excellent institutional and historical understanding of resilience issues in Kenya

National Meteorology Department (Kenya Met.) Under the Global Climate Change Framework, Kenya Met is working to improve services

They have poor levels of engagement directly with pastoralists

They are interested in indigenous knowledge for weather prediction.

They are interested in roll out of climate services to citizens in Kenya and mechanisms to ensure that.

Local Government I did not meet local government personnel but began to engage with literature around climate change and devolution. Excellent knowledge acquired on this through LTS Africa who have been working on TAMD roll-out in Isiolo.
Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation No meeting arranged.
ACTS Interested in the research side of climate change in Kenya

Very politically connected

Talk that they may get accreditation for the Green Climate Fund from the Kenya Government but will need to go through a due-diligence

 

LTS Africa

 

LTS Africa have been assisting the government in coming up with climate change adaptation and resilience projects through the StarK+ programme.

LTS are close allies with SNV already. Keen to partner more on winning bids

SNV Kenya can learn a lot from LTS on M&E for climate change adaptation and resilience.

They have an excellent understanding of the climate change landscape in Kenya.

 

PanAfrican Climate Justice Alliance Did not meet them as part of this assignment but met them 15 months ago. I had heard that they are gaining more traction and support. I would be keen to meet them in June or September.

 

 

CDKN

CDKN are supporting lots of different initiatives in Kenya

They are producing good information/communication materials

They may be keen on working with the CSO’s within the EBA programme

Climate Innovation Centre (Stratmore University) The CIC are supporting the emerging business ecosystem around climate change ….mostly around mitigation and slowly about resilience.

There are opportunities to engage more with them, as SNV Ghana is also supporting the CIC there.

We can engage more when the USAID Climate Smart Agriculture and Private Sector BAA gets signed.

CIC are keen to meet SNV Kenya senior management.

 

Climate Change Institute at University of Nairobi.

 

The University of Nairobi has recently established an Institute of Climate Change

This has resulted in over 100 masters and PhD students undertaking studies.

There are opportunities for SNV to engage especially on CVs for bids.

Their research could be beneficial to strengthening some of SNV Kenya’s programmes – they cover both agriculture and renewable energy.

UNDP/UNEP  

There are continued opportunities to engage with UNEP and UNDP through the EBA programme – especially in selling best practices that come out of the work.

 

UNEP are keen to work with SNV as implementers.

 

UNDP continue to help the government on climate change finance readiness

 

Care Kenya

Care Kenya have been heavily involved in climate change policy in Kenya.

Care have been strategic about their engagement

Care have undertaken a lot of capacity building work with the government, often at their own costs

They produce strong country specific documents.

Mary Robinson Foundation for Climate Justice  

This organization based in Ireland could help in promoting our work. They focus on the human rights aspects of climate change.

 

INTASAVE

Have been working on climate change planning and training at the local level.

Keen to work with SNV

Have good ability to train CSO’s as needed, especially on climate change.

 

World Bank

Continue to support the Kenyan government

Supporting private sector engagement in climate smart agriculture

Understand that capacity development is needed across the sector.

Currently difficult to find entry points.

County NDMA ISIOLO, County Ministry of Water, Environment and Natural resources, County Ministry of livestock and Agriculture, County Kenya Meteorological Services, Merti Integrated Development program (MID-P), Dedha Elders etc. A briefing meeting in Isiolo about the voice of change partnership project.

Potential partners very happy with the project initiation style.

 

Advocacy plan

The Resilience Thematic Group’s Advocacy Plan outlines the engagement strategy, the activities and the monitoring and evaluation framework that will be used in the project to advocate for climate change issues affecting pastoralists. This is elaborated in visual format followed by a detailed narrative which explains the inter-relations between the visually presented strategies, outputs, outcomes and impact.

 

  1. Problem description

The policy environment in Kenya is robust with Climate Change laws and institutional frameworks newly established to build economic, social and environmental resilience of communities and individuals to climate change shocks. The policy frameworks are however devoid of a strong pastoralist agenda which leaves pastoralists and their mainstay livestock economic system vulnerable.

Appropriate policies are a key component of stabilising the livelihoods of pastoral systems especially those that are geared towards climate change mitigation. Policies that are well formulated and are adaptive to the needs of pastoral communities, incorporating indigenous knowledge and recognising the role of customary institutions will foster a robust business environment that supports businesses and investments in pastoral systems resulting in communities with enhanced ability to cope with climate change. Civil society participation in platforms and policy frameworks will open (legal) avenues to comprehensively address economic, political, social and environmental issues affecting vulnerability of pastoralist communities to climate change.

 

 

  1. Goal

The long term goal of this project is to achieve climate resilient pastoralists’ communities with strengthened voice and participation in climate change policy making processes in Kenya. This goal will be attained by realization of the project’s long term outcomes such as enactment and implementation of inclusive legal frameworks (county livestock policies, sales yard bills, county integrated development plans, county climate change bills and CMMs) and Integration of pastoralists’ representatives in structures and processes of climate change decision making (county steering groups and  county climate planning committee). The resulting improved environment will promote greater allocation of national and county resources addressing climate change with specific recognition to reduce the burden on pastoralist communities and women and encourage growth of business and private financial investment in products and services (insurance, credit facilities) for pastoralists.

 

  1. Context analysis

Pastoralism is the dominant economic sector in ASALs. The pastoral economy and community livelihood strategies in drylands are heavily dependent on natural resources. Climate Change acts on these natural resources that are important to the survival of pastoralists making them vulnerable. A number of factors influence the vulnerability of Pastoralists to climate shocks and are summarized in the table below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Factor Nature of influence
Political factors ·         Lack of political goodwill with regard to pastoralists’ issues

·         Lack of adequate involvement of the Pastoral communities in the policy formulation process

Economic factors ·         Inadequate market structures for livestock trade

·         Limited access to export market opportunities

·         Limited access to affordable credit facilities for livestock traders and producers

·         Inefficiency in the livestock marketing chain because of too many brokers and middlemen

Social factors ·         Inter-community conflicts over limited resources (Pasture and Water)

·         Extra burden on women in caring for their families and small livestock in the face of limited water and pasture

Technological factors ·         Lack of capacity to adopt new breeding technologies

·         Poor mobile network coverage in pastoral areas to support financial transactions

·         Poor livestock market prices as a result of the absence of a fully functional Livestock Market Information Management System

Environmental factors ·         Floods increasing the spread of livestock diseases

·         Deforestation and degradation of land used by pastoralists

Legal factors ·         Conflicting legislations within the sector

 

In order to achieve its overall goal, the project will engage with relevant actors and institutions. More specifically, the project will partner with the county governments (department of climate change, livestock , environment and natural resources management and water); national government (relevant ministries, National Drought Management Authority, National Environment Management Authority, Kenya Meteorological Services, Kenya national bureau of statistics); private sector (financial institutions, marketing associations, and investors);  research institutions ( IFPRI, Kenya Institute of Public Policy Research and Analysis, The University of Nairobi, ILRI); Civil Society Organizations (League of Pastoralist Women of Kenya, Kenya climate working group, Adaptation consortium, Merti Integrated Development Program, Ward Adaptation planning committee, Dedha); and International Agencies (USAID, EU, CORDAID, OXFAM, CARE).

5. Monitoring &Evaluation

 

Our PME approach supports learning, steering as well as accountability, and monitoring is an ongoing practise throughout the duration of the project. To allow for project-wide reporting, learning and comparison between countries and themes, a harmonised Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) framework has been developed by SNV Corporate. The harmonised M&E framework contains harmonised outcomes, outputs, indicators and monitoring methods that all country themes apply.

The below M&E framework is based on our theme-specific Theory of Change (ToC). For each result in the ToC we have defined indicators and methods of measurement. To the extent possible we have made use of harmonised indicators and methods of measurement; these are complemented with new theme-specific indicators and methods of measurement.

Recognising that our project develops over time as the context changes and lessons are learned, we value regular reflection on which project elements we are (not) going to plan and why (not) based on collected data on progress. SNV and the CSOs will organize regular opportunities to reflect on the progress of the project and where needed our theory of change, strategies, and targets will be updated. The method, outcome harvesting will be used to guide these learning processes in 2017 and further.

Detailed information about the harmonised M&E framework, including the various standardised monitoring methods, can be found in the document Harmonised PME framework.

 

7.2 Outlook activities 2018

 

The Advocacy plan for 2017 will mainly implement activities that will ensure short-term outcomes are realized. The lessons and experiences that the implementation of this advocacy plan will generate will be incorporated into the review process of this plan by the end of 2017. The rich lessons learnt will inform on whether some activities will be scaled up or the otherwise in 2018.

However, some of the activities captured in this advocacy plan might take a little longer in creating the expected impacts or results. These activities are those related to influencing the existing policies of even creating the desired polices that are expected to improve service delivery and allow livestock producers and traders to participate in the climate policy discussions. The political nature and intrigues that surround policy formulation and policy implementation might be some of the reasons that can cause such delay.

 

8. Assumptions, risks & mitigation

Assumptions

The resilience thematic group considers the following assumptions in undertaking this voice for change partnership project:

 

  • That regular meetings with stakeholders will lead to collaborative policy advocacy initiatives such as new relevant networks/partnerships developed to amplify the voice of pastoralists in the climate change agenda
  • That policies enacted and /or reviewed will be implemented fully to promote pastoralist voice in climate change dialogue
  • That gender and intergenerational issues will be considered in pastoralists’ participation in climate change resilience initiatives.
  • Implementing partners will receive adequate support in a timely manner from SNV to implement planned activities
  • That policy makers and bureaucrats will be responsive to our policy campaigns of amplifying pastoralists’ voice.

 

Risks& mitigations

  • There is risk that the upcoming 2017 general election may record incidences of unrest, alter policy development focus and thereby affect implementation of some activities during the campaign and election period. As a mitigation strategy, project action plans will factor in the activities in the elections and campaign calendar to take advantage of complimentary events and minimise conflicts accordingly.
  • Powerful and influential actors from non-pastoralist communities may oppose or even fight initiatives to amplify pastoralists’ voice in climate change agenda. To mitigate this, the project partners will work with the pastoralist leaders’ forum (PLF) which provides a strong united front for advocacy of pastoralists’ issues.
  • Newly elected and appointed leaders/civil servants following 2017 elections may discontinue collaborating with the program as predecessor did. However, partners will work closely with senior officials at ministries as well, employed by public service board and not appointed by president to ensure continuity.

 

 

 

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